However, caution must accompany this entry: the weather should not be used as a window into a character's soul. The weather can add invisible pressure for the character, it can layer the SCENE with symbolism, it can carefully hint at the internal landscape, but it must never OVERTLY TELL emotion. Such a heavy-handed approach results in weather cliches and melodrama (a storm raging above a bloody battle, a broken-hearted girl crying in the rain).
Sight: water covering land where it normally wouldn't, swollen rivers, expanding ponds and lakes, heavy rains, floating debris, rushing or stagnant water, people sitting on rooftops, people rowing in canoes or boats, stalled cars, rescue teams, water rising to submerge cars and single-story homes, flooded roads and bridges, power outages, discolored water (orange or brown) from heavy dirt composition
Smell: water and damp, wet wood, earth and dirt, mud
Taste: water, dirt
Touch: wet clothes and skin, pushing your way through water, chills and shivers, the squish of wet carpet underfoot, mud pulling at your shoes, wrinkling skin from being wet for so long
Sound: rushing/lapping/dripping water, walls settling and creaking, debris tapping or scraping the side of the house, people yelling, the whoomp-whoomp of rescue helicopters, voices amplified by bullhorns, wind and rain
Mood: Floods are powerful and destructive, bringing about a feeling of helplessness and despair. In life-threatening situations, a flood might cause a person to think about the "big picture" questions of mortality, life after death, and gratitude for the important things. As with any natural disaster, it may isolate people or draw them together in the face of danger.
Symbolism: power, God, the wildness and unpredictability of nature, cleansing
Possible Cliches: a flood as a judgment and sign of God's wrath, Noah's ark
OTHER: Floods have a variety of possible causes: heavy rainfall, snowmelt in rivers, over saturated soil, deforestation, dam or levee failures. Some floods occur seasonally in certain areas while others are completely unexpected. Flash floods are the most dangerous and cause the majority of flood-related deaths.
Don't be afraid to use the weather to add contrast. Unusual pairings, especially when drawing attention to the character's emotions, is a powerful trigger for tension. Consider how the bleak mood of a character is even more noticeable as morning sunlight dances across the crystals of fresh snow on the walk to work. Or how the feeling of betrayal is so much more poignant on a hot summer day. Likewise, success or joy can be hampered by a cutting wind or drizzling sleet, foreshadowing conflict to come.